C2Fuel (2019 – 2023)

Carbon Captured Fuel and Energy Carriers for an Intensified Steel Off-Gases based Electricity Generation in a Smarter Industrial Ecosystem

C2FUEL project aims to develop energy-efficient, economically and environmentally viable CO2 conversion technologies for the displacement of fossils fuels emission through a concept of industrial symbiosis between carbon intensive industries, power production, and local economy. This concept will be demonstrated at Dunkirk between DK6 combined cycle power plant, Arcelor Mittal steel factory and one of the major European harbor, a solid showcase for future replication.

The CO2 present in the blast furnace gas will be selectively removed and combined with green hydrogen generated by electrolysis fed with renewable electricity to produce two promising energy carriers. It will allow to simultaneously reuse CO2 emission from the steel-making factory, electricity surplus in the Dunkirk area and to improve the operational and environmental performance of the DK6 combined cycle. C2FUEL unique circular approach could contribute to mitigate up to 2,4 Mt CO2 per year.

Key technical and economic challenges to be tackled in the project are high temperature electrolysis, innovative production routes of DME and FA from renewable H2 and captured CO2. The developed processes will be integrated, demonstrated and validated in an industrial relevant environment and the produced fuel will be tested in real end-user systems. Technical-economic-environmental feasibility and societal acceptance will be carried out to ensure the replication potential.

C2FUEL key projected targets are an annual production of 2,4 Mt of formic acid, 100 kt of green hydrogen for seasonal storage using 3,6TWh of renewable electricity and 1,2 Mt of DME with 320 kt of green hydrogen using 11TWh of renewable electricity.

C2FUEL partnership gathers the whole value chain necessary for production and use of CO2 conversion to carbon-captured energy carriers : carbon captured supply, renewable hydrogen and fuel development, integration to power plant and operation, as well as end-users and international promoters


Xiufu Sun
Development Engineer
DTU Energy
+45 46 77 56 30